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Mining Eesti Energia

An average of 20 million tonnes of oil shale is mined in Estonia every year of which Eesti Energia mines up to 15 01 million tonnes How oil shale is formed As the oil shale layers in the ground alternate with layers of limestone the latter has to be sorted and removed before the oil shale can be used for energy production

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LOWER LIMESTONE GROUP Brigantian Lawmuir Formation Pathhead Formation West Lothian Oil Shale UPPER OIL SHALE Formation Aberlady Formation GROUP Asbian Kirkwood Formation Sandy Craig Formation Viséan Pittenweem Formation CALCIFEROUS Arundian Strathclyde LOWER OIL SHALE nbsp

Should Florida 39 frack 39 its limestone for oil and gas Two

5 May 2016 Potential hydrocarbon reservoir rocks in Florida are distinct from shales – the layers of sedimentary rock in other parts of the U S where fracking has led to a drilling boom in natural gas and oil The rock under Florida generally has a higher permeability making it easier for liquids to move through it A fracas nbsp

The Oil Shale Deposits of Thailand Economic Geology

lain by beds of limestone marl and calcareous sand stone Lignitous coal interbedded with micaceous and calcareous sandstone lies beneath the oil shale horizons Brown et al 1951 suggested that due to the location of the Mae Sod deposits near the synclinal hinge of the basin most of the oil shale sections have nbsp

Overview of Gas and Oil Resources in West Virginia

Cashaqua Shale Member Brallier Shale West Falls Formation Tully Limestone Sonyea Formation Middlesex Shale Member West River Shale Mbr Burket Shale Geneseo Shale Member Marcellus Shale Onondaga Limestone Oriskany Sandstone Helderberg Limestone Huntersville Chert Corniferous Tioga ash nbsp

KUKERSITE OIL SHALE

tonnes respectively Hence oil shale is a low grade fuel The environmental problems arising from oil shale production are also related to oil shale composition and geological conditions After mining and benefi ciation much limestone remains unused and is deposited in waste dumps Oil shale waste and waste heaps nbsp

Oil Shale vs Shale Oil ResearchGate

18 Jun 2013 All rights reserved SHALE OIL Oil Locked in Rock Shale Oil is more accurately termed as oil bearing shale Unlike oil shale oil bearing shale contains oil and some gas trapped in relatively low porosity and permeability rock commonly shale or tight siltstone limestone or dolomite that typically resides a nbsp

Oil Shale vs Shale Oil What 39 s The Difference – Utah Geological

The Utah Geological Survey UGS has conducted resource studies of oil shale and shale oil for over 20 years naturally cooked pressure can force the newly generated oil and gas to migrate from the shale beds also referred to as hydrocarbon source rocks to traps in porous sandstone or limestone reservoirs where it nbsp

West Lothian Geodiversity West Lothian Council

29 Figure 41 Society East Shore 2 Sandstone overlying oil shale Dunnet Sandstone Hopetoun Member West Lothian Oil Shale Formation NT 1058 7879 WLGS 14 Figure 42 Society East Shore 3 Sandstone with carbonate nodules overlying limestone Dunnet Sandstone Hopetoun Member West Lothian Oil Shale nbsp

VII Assemblages of Small Spores from the Lower Oil shale Group

SYNOPSIS Assemblages of small spores are described from the Pumpherston Shell Bed the Pumpherston Oil Shales the Burdiehouse Limestone and a thin coal found within the latter rock in one locality all from the Lower Oil shale Group Visean of the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland The assemblages from the nbsp

Characterization and Geochemistry of Devonian Oil Shale North

13 Apr 1984 zard central Tennessee as having the best oil potential of the Devonian Chattanooga Shale in the southernmost part of the Highland Rim section These four counties Limestone and Madison Counties Alabama and Giles and Lincoln Counties Tennessee have an average oil yield of 13 9 gallons per ton nbsp

Discrimination of moist oil shale and limestone using laser induced

Laser induced plasma emission spectra of both Estonian oil shale and limestone with varying moisture content were studied The temporal change of the laser induced plasma plume temperature Te and electron density ne were evaluated Plasma temperature and electron concentration changed with the moisture nbsp

Understanding Tight Oil Canadian Society for Unconventional

1 0 10 0 100 0 Permeability mD Quality of Reservoir Good Poor Shale Limestone Conventional Oil or Gas Reservoirs Tight Gas or Tight Oil Sandstone Natural Gas from Coal Granite Sidewalk Cement Volcanic Pumice Natural Gas from Coal reservoirs are classified as unconventional due to type of gas storage

A Guide to Shale Limestone and Other Sedimentary Rocks

31 Jul 2014 By John Bestoloffe Sedimentary rocks are one of three types of rocks found on the Earth 39 s surface Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments or little pieces of rock such as sand gravel clay and silt These fragments are called claysts Other types of sedimentary rocks may contain minerals In addition nbsp

05 Should Florida 39 frack 39 its limestone for oil and gas Two

9 May 2016 which are composed of limestone and dolostone in South Florida and carbonates and sand in the Panhandle Potential hydrocarbon reservoir rocks in Florida are distinct from shales – the layers of sedimentary rock in other parts of the U S where fracking has led to a drilling boom in natural gas and oil

Oil shale definition 2B1st Consulting

6 Sep 2012 Oil shale and shale oil are different as oil shale is a rock as a variety of the shale rocks while shale oil is a light crude trapped in shale limestone and sandstone formations characterized by very low porosity and permeability That is the reason why shale oil is better named tight oil or light tight oil LTO or nbsp

Shale Sedimentary Rock Pictures Definition amp More Geology com

The gray rock units are impermeable shale Oil and natural gas forms within these shale units and then migrates upwards To make cement crushed limestone and shale are heated to a temperature that is high enough to evaporate off all water and break down the limestone into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide

Sedimentary Rocks Pictures Characteristics Textures Types

A photo gallery of sedimentary rocks Breccia chert coal conglomerate dolomite flint iron ore limestone oil shale rock salt sandstone shale siltstone

Petroleum Geology of the Western Weald and South Downs Shale

The details of the brown argillaceous limestones in the Huddlestoni Zone above the oil shale in the central Weald Basin are not know to the author at present 2013 It is quite possible that they have affinities with the Short Joint Coal of the Kimmeridge type nbsp

Oil Shale of Permian Irati Formation Brazil AAPG Datapages

Sul where the upper bed averages about 9 m the lower bed about 4 5 m and the intervening shale limestone sequence about 12 m Basalt and diabase intrusive rocks are present in the Irati Formation at many localities in its outcrop The oil shale is dark brown to black finely laminated fissile and hard but weathers to a nbsp

Introduction Ttu

Lately new technologies have been introduced and tested These are Surface miner tests in dolostone limestone and oil shale Hydraulic equipment in many applications Mobile technology in cutting loading and hauling Long boreholes tests and high roof 3 5m instead of 2 8m in underground oil shale mining 4m nbsp

future of oil shale mining technology in estonia v karu a västrik a

results and show a promising future for sustainable oil shale mining Introduction The modelling and planning of mining fields are based on measurements and analyses of the deposit which are gathered in parallel with industrial tests that provide initial data For this purpose sampling tests of oil shale and limestone have nbsp

Oil shale in Estonia Wikipedia

Oil shale Estonian põlevkivi is a strategic energy resource that constitutes about 4 of Estonia 39 s gross domestic product The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world In 2012 the country 39 s oil shale industry employed 6 500 people – about 1 of the national workforce Of all the oil shale fired nbsp

Ontario 39 s Shale and Tight Resources Natural Resources Canada

25 Jul 2017 The Collingwood Member upper Cobourg or Lindsay Formation is a fissile organic rich very fine grained limestone It gradationally overlies interbedded and Production Shale gas or shale oil are not being extracted anywhere in Ontario and there are no requests to explore for shale gas or shale oil

Oil shale geology Wikipedia

The quot Irati formation quot consists of two oil shale beds separated by 12 metres 40 ft of limestone and shale The upper layer is thicker 9 metres 30 ft but the thinner lower bed 4 metres 10 ft is of greater value the weight percent of shale oil yield is around 12 for the lower layer as compared to 7 for the upper one

What is Oil Shale Union of Concerned Scientists

Rock like at room temperature oil shale produces vapors and gases when heated which in turn are condensed and turned into oil Oil shale shouldn 39 t be confused with quot shale oil quot also called tight oil a more commonly produced type of unconventional oil that 39 s found trapped in limestone or sandstone rocks Because oil nbsp

The lacustrine Burdiehouse Limestone Formation a key to the

freshwater lacustrine phases within the Dinantian Oil Shale Group at the eastern end of the Midland Valley of Scotland The understanding of the areally extensive Burdiehouse Limestone Formation is fundamental to an appreciation of the palaeolimnology of the lake in which algal oozes consisting mainly of planktonic nbsp

Organic Petrography of Oil Shales SpringerLink

The volume of oil produced during pyrolysis and the chemical composition and subsequent physical properties of the derived oil are dependent on the nature and abundance of organic matter It should be noted rocks best termed oil shale coal limestone and claystone may all occur in the same sequence With respect to nbsp

Oil Shale Plan Threatens Massive Climate Pollution Earthjustice

What oil shale mining has done to Estonia A closed oil shale mine in Ida Viru County Estonia has left an impressive footprint in the middle of the forest a towering 200 ft mountain of limestone There are more than 36 million tons of this material at the site Limestone rubble is a by product or overage of oil shale mining

Oil shale mining in Estonia Surface mining is the most economical

The amount of oil they would yield exceeds the current total oil reserves by as much as 50 percent Some 5 billion tonnes of oil shale occur in Estonia 1 5 billion tonnes of which can be considered recoverable and are mostly enclosed by limestone deposits The northern European country alone realizes some 70 percent of nbsp

Potential Oil Recovery from Kansas Oil Shales the Kansas

31 Jan 2013 The Tacket Formation is composed of two shales separated by a thin limestone The formation thickness is variable throughout southeastern Kansas The examined upper shale unit ranged in thickness from 3 3 to 4 4 meters and produced from trace amounts to 14 0 gallons of oil per ton of shale The Anna nbsp

Stratigraphy and Oil Resource Potential of the Mississippian Heath

27 Jan 2014 Internally the Heath can be informally subdivided into in ascending order a lower 39 shale 39 the Van Dusen Zone Potter Creek Coal Forest Grove Limestone Cox Ranch Oil Shale Heath Limestone and an upper 39 shale 39 Oil shows and saturations are present throughout the entire Heath Formation

About Oil Shale Northwood Exploration Israel NEI

Oil shale is a naturally occurring rock characterized by a high organic content Because of the high organic matter within the rock it is also called a bituminous rock Although called oil shale it is not always a shale but sometimes it is a high organic content limestone chalk or other type of rock so a bituminous shale or nbsp

Mining Enefit

The enrichment process for oil shale removes limestone from the raw mix of oil shale and limestone produced by mining Enriched oil shale has a much higher calorific value than does a raw oil shale mix Investments Production Investments in mining million euros Eesti Energia Mining is continually investing in nbsp

Oil shale – A Jordanian Resource Whose Time has Come

oil content Studies suggest that the hydrocarbons are concentrated in down faulted graben elongate basins Oil shale horizons of less apparent importance occur in the under lying Al Hisa Phosphorite formation and in the overlying Eocene rocks of the Um Rijam Chert Limestone Formation Oil shale is defined as nbsp

Lithologic Patterns USGS National Geologic Map Database

shale 621 Cherty shale 622 Dolomitic shale 623 Calcareous shale or marl 624 Carbonaceous shale 625 Oil shale 626 Chalk 627 Limestone 628 Clastic limestone 629 Fossiliferous clastic limestone 630 Nodular or irregularly bedded limestone 631 Limestone irregular burrow fillings of saccharoidal dolomite

Shale Wikipedia

Shale is a fine grained clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments silt sized particles of other minerals especially quartz and calcite Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness called nbsp

Perspectives for the Mining of Oil Shale and Limestone CiteSeerX

ABSTRACT The paper introduces a mining of two most important mineral resources in Estonia The goal is to present main factors which play an important role for perspectives of the mining of oil shale and limestone with a surface miner Detailed overview of oil shale mining will be given because in Estonia is situated one nbsp

The Jurassic shales of the Weald Basin Oil and Gas Authority

Note that some samples are essentially sandstones and limestones and many samples have a clay content gt 35 The pink oval shows the shale lithologies most suited to fracture stimulation Figure 45 Workflow used in this study to estimate the in place shale oil resource Figure 46 Schematic geological cross sections nbsp

Environmental problems in the Estonian oil shale industry Energy

In the 1980s about two thirds of the world 39 s oil shale output came from Estonia Serious problems in the mining complex are connected with large losses of oil shale at mining and enrichment more than 30 and voluminous dewatering 25 m3 per tonne of oil shale After mining and beneficiation much limestone remains nbsp

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